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溅射镀膜工艺Sputtering coating process

溅射镀膜,通常指的是磁控溅射镀膜,属于高速低温溅镀法.该工艺要求真空度在1×10-3Torr左右,即1.3×10-3Pa的真空状态充入惰性气体氩气(Ar),并在塑胶基材(阳极)和金属靶材(阴极)之间加上高压直流电,由于辉光放电(glow discharge)产生的电子激发惰性气体,产生等离子体,等离子体将金属靶材的原子轰出,沉积在塑胶基材上。

Sputtering coating, usually refers to the magnetron sputtering coating, belongs to the sputtering method at low temperature. The process requirement of vacuum in 1 x 10-3 torr, namely 1.3 x 10-3 pa vacuum inert gas argon (Ar), and the plastic base material (anode) and metal target material (cathode) and high voltage direct current (dc), because the glow discharge (glow discharge) produced by the electronic excitation of inert gas, plasma, plasma to metal atom bomb out of target material, is deposited on the plastic base material.




   离子可以直流辉光放电(glow discharge)产生,在10-1—10 Pa真空度,在两极间加高压产生放电,正离子会轰击负电之靶材而溅射也靶材,而镀至被镀物上。

   正常辉光放电(glow discharge)的电流密度与阴极物质与形状、气体种类压力等有关。溅镀时应尽可能维持其稳定。

Charged particles of tens of electron volts or higher kinetic energy are used to bombate the surface of a material and cause it to spatter into the gas phase, which can be used for etching and coating.

The number of atoms sputtered out of an ion is called Yield. The higher the Yield, the faster the sputtering speed. The highest is Cu,Au,Ag, and the lowest is Ti,Mo,Ta, and W. Generally between 0.1 and 10 atoms per ion.

The ions can be generated by dc glow discharge, at 10-1-10 Pa vacuum, high pressure is added between the poles to produce discharge, and the positive ions will bombd the negative target and sputter the target, and then plating on the plated object.

The current density of normal glow discharge is related to cathode material, shape and gas type pressure. Spillage should be maintained as stable as possible.


Any material can be sputtering coating, even high melting point materials are prone to sputtering, but for non-conductor targets must be sputtering with RF or pulse; And because the conductivity is poor, the spatter power and speed are low. Metal spatter power up to 10W/cm2, non-metal < 5W/cm2

二极溅镀射Dipole sputtering coating:


The target material is the cathode, the plated workpiece and the workpiece frame are the anode, and the gas (argon Ar) pressure is a few Pa or higher to obtain a higher plating rate.

磁控溅射magnetron sputtering:

在阴极靶表面形成一正交电磁场,在此区电子密度高,进而提高离子密度,使得溅镀率提高(一个数量级),溅射速度可达0.1—1 um/min膜层附着力较蒸镀佳,是目前最实用的镀膜技术之一。

An orthogonal electromagnetic field is formed on the surface of the cathode target, and the electron density is high in this area, which improves the ion density, increases the sputtering rate (an order of magnitude), and the sputtering speed can reach 0.1-1 um/min, which is one of the most practical coating technologies at present.


Other coating techniques include bias sputtering, reactive sputtering, ion beam sputtering, etc


Sputtering coating machine equipment and process (magnetron sputtering coating)

溅射镀膜机由真空室,排气系统,溅射源和控制系统组成。溅射源又分为电源和溅射枪(sputter gun)

Sputtering coater consists of vacuum chamber, exhaust system, sputtering source and control system. Sputter source is divided into power supply and sputter gun.

磁控溅射枪分为平面型和圆柱型,其中平面型分为矩型和圆型,靶材料利用率30- 40%,圆柱型靶材料利用率>50%

Magnetron sputtering guns are divided into planar type and cylindrical type, among which the planar type is divided into rectangular type and circular type. The utilization rate of target material is 30-40%, and the utilization rate of cylindrical target material is >50%


Sputtering power supply is divided into: DC (DC), RF (RF), pulse (pulse),


    Dc: 800-1000v (Max) conductor, must be disaster arc.


    RF: 13.56mhz, for non-conductor use.


    Pulse: general use, the latest development


Sputtering parameters must be controlled including sputtering current, voltage or power, and sputtering pressure (5×10-1 -- 1.0pa). If all parameters are stable, film thickness can be estimated for coating time.


The selection and treatment of the target material is very important, the purity should be good, the texture should be uniform, no bubbles, defects, the surface should be smooth and clean.


For directly cooled targets, attention should be paid to the thinning of the target material after sputtering and the possibility of cracking, especially non-metallic targets. Generally, the thinnest part of the target material should not be less than half of the original target thickness or 5mm.


Magnetron sputtering operation is similar to general evaporation. Firstly, vacuum is pumped to 1× 10-2pa, and then argon (Ar) ion is injected to bombate the target material. During sputtering, attention should be paid to the current, voltage and pressure at the pressure of 5×10-1 -- 1.0pa. At the beginning of the splash if there is lighting, can slowly raise the voltage, after the steady discharge to close the shutter.


In this process, the ionization of inert gas (Ar) cleaning and exposed the plastic base material on the surface of several small empty MAO, and through the electronic and the plastic substrate surface is clean and produce free radicals, and maintain the vacuum with coating and structure formation of a surface, the surface structure of the association and free radicals produce fill and high adhesion of the combination of chemical and physical state, form a thin film to outside surface firmly.


The membrane is formed by first filling the surface compound roughly with the fine holes of the plastic hairs and then connecting them. Spattering and common evaporation plating, spattering with electroplating and substrate bonding strength - adhesion is more than 10 times higher than evaporation plating, electroplating compact, uniform and other advantages. Vacuum evaporation needs to make the metal or metal oxide evaporation, and the heating temperature should not be too high, otherwise, the metal gas deposition in the plastic substrate heat and burn the plastic substrate. Sputtering particles are hardly affected by gravity, and the positions of target material and substrate can be arranged freely. In the initial stage of film formation, the nucleation density is high, and the extremely thin continuous film below 10nm can be produced. The target material has a long life and can be continuously produced automatically for a long time. Target material can be made into various shapes, with the special design of the machine for better control and the most efficient production


Sputtering USES high voltage electric fields to produce plasma coating materials, using almost all high melting point metals, alloys and metal oxides, such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium, silver, gold, etc. Moreover, it is a process of forced deposition, and the adhesion of electrodeposits and plastic substrates obtained by this process is much higher than that by vacuum evaporation. But processing costs are relatively high.


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