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溅射镀膜工艺Sputtering coating process

溅射镀膜,通常指的是磁控溅射镀膜,属于高速低温溅镀法.该工艺要求真空度在1×10-3Torr左右,即1.3×10-3Pa的真空状态充入惰性气体氩气(Ar),并在塑胶基材(阳极)和金属靶材(阴极)之间加上高压直流电,由于辉光放电(glow discharge)产生的电子激发惰性气体,产生等离子体,等离子体将金属靶材的原子轰出,沉积在塑胶基材上。

Sputtering coating, usually refers to the magnetron sputtering coating, belongs to the sputtering method at low temperature. The process requirement of vacuum in 1 x 10-3 torr, namely 1.3 x 10-3 pa vacuum inert gas argon (Ar), and the plastic base material (anode) and metal target material (cathode) and high voltage direct current (dc), because the glow discharge (glow discharge) produced by the electronic excitation of inert gas, plasma, plasma to metal atom bomb out of target material, is deposited on the plastic base material.

原理theory

   以几十电子伏特或更高动能的荷电粒子轰击材料表面,使其溅射出进入气相,可用来刻蚀和镀膜。

   入射一个离子所溅射出的原子个数称为溅射产额(Yield)产额越高溅射速度越快,以Cu,Au,Ag等最高,Ti,Mo,Ta,W等最低。一般在0.1-10原子/离子。

   离子可以直流辉光放电(glow discharge)产生,在10-1—10 Pa真空度,在两极间加高压产生放电,正离子会轰击负电之靶材而溅射也靶材,而镀至被镀物上。

   正常辉光放电(glow discharge)的电流密度与阴极物质与形状、气体种类压力等有关。溅镀时应尽可能维持其稳定。

Charged particles of tens of electron volts or higher kinetic energy are used to bombate the surface of a material and cause it to spatter into the gas phase, which can be used for etching and coating.

The number of atoms sputtered out of an ion is called Yield. The higher the Yield, the faster the sputtering speed. The highest is Cu,Au,Ag, and the lowest is Ti,Mo,Ta, and W. Generally between 0.1 and 10 atoms per ion.

The ions can be generated by dc glow discharge, at 10-1-10 Pa vacuum, high pressure is added between the poles to produce discharge, and the positive ions will bombd the negative target and sputter the target, and then plating on the plated object.

The current density of normal glow discharge is related to cathode material, shape and gas type pressure. Spillage should be maintained as stable as possible.

任何材料皆可溅射镀膜,即使高熔点材料也容易溅镀,但对非导体靶材须以射频(RF)或脉冲(pulse)溅射;且因导电性较差,溅镀功率及速度较低。金属溅镀功率可达10W/cm2,非金属<5W/cm2

Any material can be sputtering coating, even high melting point materials are prone to sputtering, but for non-conductor targets must be sputtering with RF or pulse; And because the conductivity is poor, the spatter power and speed are low. Metal spatter power up to 10W/cm2, non-metal < 5W/cm2

二极溅镀射Dipole sputtering coating:

靶材为阴极,被镀工件及工件架为阳极,气体(氩气Ar)压力约几Pa或更高方可得较高镀率。

The target material is the cathode, the plated workpiece and the workpiece frame are the anode, and the gas (argon Ar) pressure is a few Pa or higher to obtain a higher plating rate.

磁控溅射magnetron sputtering:

在阴极靶表面形成一正交电磁场,在此区电子密度高,进而提高离子密度,使得溅镀率提高(一个数量级),溅射速度可达0.1—1 um/min膜层附着力较蒸镀佳,是目前最实用的镀膜技术之一。

An orthogonal electromagnetic field is formed on the surface of the cathode target, and the electron density is high in this area, which improves the ion density, increases the sputtering rate (an order of magnitude), and the sputtering speed can reach 0.1-1 um/min, which is one of the most practical coating technologies at present.

其它有偏压溅射、反应溅射、离子束溅射等镀膜技术

Other coating techniques include bias sputtering, reactive sputtering, ion beam sputtering, etc

溅射镀膜机设备与工艺(磁控溅射镀膜)

Sputtering coating machine equipment and process (magnetron sputtering coating)

溅射镀膜机由真空室,排气系统,溅射源和控制系统组成。溅射源又分为电源和溅射枪(sputter gun)

Sputtering coater consists of vacuum chamber, exhaust system, sputtering source and control system. Sputter source is divided into power supply and sputter gun.

磁控溅射枪分为平面型和圆柱型,其中平面型分为矩型和圆型,靶材料利用率30- 40%,圆柱型靶材料利用率>50%

Magnetron sputtering guns are divided into planar type and cylindrical type, among which the planar type is divided into rectangular type and circular type. The utilization rate of target material is 30-40%, and the utilization rate of cylindrical target material is >50%

溅射电源分为:直流(DC)、射频(RF)、脉冲(pulse)

Sputtering power supply is divided into: DC (DC), RF (RF), pulse (pulse),

    直流:800-1000V(Max)导体用,须可灾弧。

    Dc: 800-1000v (Max) conductor, must be disaster arc.

    射频:13.56MHZ,非导体用。

    RF: 13.56mhz, for non-conductor use.

    脉冲:泛用,最新发展出

    Pulse: general use, the latest development

溅镀时须控制参数有溅射电流,电压或功率,以及溅镀压力(5×10-1—1.0Pa),若各参数皆稳定,膜厚可以镀膜时间估计出来。

Sputtering parameters must be controlled including sputtering current, voltage or power, and sputtering pressure (5×10-1 -- 1.0pa). If all parameters are stable, film thickness can be estimated for coating time.

靶材的选择与处理十分重要,纯度要佳,质地均匀,没有气泡、缺陷,表面应平整光洁。

The selection and treatment of the target material is very important, the purity should be good, the texture should be uniform, no bubbles, defects, the surface should be smooth and clean.

对于直接冷却靶,须注意其在溅射后靶材变薄,有可能破裂特别是非金属靶。一般靶材最薄处不可小于原靶厚之一半或5mm。

For directly cooled targets, attention should be paid to the thinning of the target material after sputtering and the possibility of cracking, especially non-metallic targets. Generally, the thinnest part of the target material should not be less than half of the original target thickness or 5mm.

磁控溅镀操作方式和一般蒸镀相似,先将真空抽至1×10-2Pa,再通入氩气(Ar)离子轰击靶材,在5×10-1—1.0Pa的压力下进行溅镀其间须注意电流、电压及压力。开始时溅镀若有打火,可缓慢调升电压,待稳定放电后再关shutter.

Magnetron sputtering operation is similar to general evaporation. Firstly, vacuum is pumped to 1× 10-2pa, and then argon (Ar) ion is injected to bombate the target material. During sputtering, attention should be paid to the current, voltage and pressure at the pressure of 5×10-1 -- 1.0pa. At the beginning of the splash if there is lighting, can slowly raise the voltage, after the steady discharge to close the shutter.

在这个过程中,离子化的惰性气体(Ar)清洗和暴露该塑胶基材表面上数个毛细微空,并通过该电子与自塑胶基材表面被清洁而产生一自由基,并维持真空状态下施以溅镀形成表面缔结构,使表面缔结构与自由基产生填补和高附着性的化学性和物理性的结合状态,以在表面外稳固地形成薄膜.

In this process, the ionization of inert gas (Ar) cleaning and exposed the plastic base material on the surface of several small empty MAO, and through the electronic and the plastic substrate surface is clean and produce free radicals, and maintain the vacuum with coating and structure formation of a surface, the surface structure of the association and free radicals produce fill and high adhesion of the combination of chemical and physical state, form a thin film to outside surface firmly.

其中,薄膜是先通过把表面缔造物大致地填满该塑胶毛细微孔后并作链接而形成.溅镀与常用的蒸发镀相比,溅镀具有电镀层与基材的结合力强-附着力比蒸发镀高过10倍以上,电镀层致密,均匀等优点.真空蒸镀需要使金属或金属氧化物蒸发汽化,而加热的温度不能太高,否则,金属气体沉积在塑胶基材放热而烧坏塑胶基材.溅射粒子几不受重力影响,靶材与基板位置可自由安排,薄膜形成初期成核密度高,可生产10nm以下的极薄连续膜,靶材的寿命长,可长时间自动化连续生产。靶材可制作成各种形状,配合机台的特殊设计做更好的控制及最有效率的生产

The membrane is formed by first filling the surface compound roughly with the fine holes of the plastic hairs and then connecting them. Spattering and common evaporation plating, spattering with electroplating and substrate bonding strength - adhesion is more than 10 times higher than evaporation plating, electroplating compact, uniform and other advantages. Vacuum evaporation needs to make the metal or metal oxide evaporation, and the heating temperature should not be too high, otherwise, the metal gas deposition in the plastic substrate heat and burn the plastic substrate. Sputtering particles are hardly affected by gravity, and the positions of target material and substrate can be arranged freely. In the initial stage of film formation, the nucleation density is high, and the extremely thin continuous film below 10nm can be produced. The target material has a long life and can be continuously produced automatically for a long time. Target material can be made into various shapes, with the special design of the machine for better control and the most efficient production

溅镀利用高压电场做发生等离子镀膜物质,使用几乎所有高熔点金属,合金和金属氧化物,如:铬,钼,钨,钛,银,金等.而且,它是一个强制沉积的过程,采用这种工艺获得的电镀层与塑胶基材附着力远远高于真空蒸镀法.但加工成本相对较高.

Sputtering USES high voltage electric fields to produce plasma coating materials, using almost all high melting point metals, alloys and metal oxides, such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium, silver, gold, etc. Moreover, it is a process of forced deposition, and the adhesion of electrodeposits and plastic substrates obtained by this process is much higher than that by vacuum evaporation. But processing costs are relatively high.

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